Published on November 30, 2021

Study shows increased risk of abnormal Pap smear, HPV infection, painful periods, and abnormal ultrasounds of the breast, uterus, and endometrium among women with lower vitamin D levels

Key Points

  • Vitamin D is necessary for many aspects of women’s health and reproductive health
  • Previous research has shown that women who test positive for HPV infection of the cervix, or who receive abnormal Pap smear results, are more likely to have lower vitamin D levels; higher vitamin D levels have also been linked to a reduced risk for endometriosis, uterine myomas, and dysmenorrhea (pelvic pain with menstruation)
  • A new study comparing women with vitamin D levels of at least 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/L) to women with levels below 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/L) found that women with higher levels had a 27% decreased risk of HPV infection of the cervix, 17% decreased risk of dysmenorrhea, and a decreased risk of abnormal ultrasounds of the breast (14%), uterus (33%), and endometrium (54%)

Vitamin D is essential to women’s reproductive health; getting enough vitamin D can influence the regulation of certain hormonal pathways, follicular development and the menstrual cycle, fertility and conception time, and many aspects of prenatal health and fetal development.

Previous research has demonstrated a link between vitamin D levels and several gynecological disorders. For example, studies have shown that women who test positive for HPV infection of the cervix, or who receive abnormal Pap smear results, are more likely to have lower vitamin D levels than women who do not have these conditions. Other research has linked higher vitamin D levels to a reduced risk for endometriosis, uterine myomas, and dysmenorrhea (pelvic pain with menstruation).

New Study Confirms the Relationship Between Vitamin D Level and GYN Disorders

A study by Chu et al. looked at data from 7699 female adults (ages 20 years or older) to further investigate the association between a woman’s vitamin D level and the incidence of several specific gynecologic-associated diseases.

Only 16% of the women in the study had a vitamin D level of at least 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/L).  42% of the women had vitamin D deficiency, with levels below 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/L), and another 42% were labeled as insufficient, with levels between 20-30 ng/ml (50-75 nmol/L).

Compared to women with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml, the women with vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher had a

  • 27% decreased risk of HPV infection of the cervix
  • 17% decreased risk of dysmenorrhea
  • decreased risk of abnormal ultrasounds of the breast (by 14%), uterus (by 33%), and endometrium (by 54%)

Click to Enlarge & Print

Not all findings were of significant value; additional associations were also found between vitamin D deficiency and endometriosis, uterine myoma, and abnormal Pap smear results.

Vitamin D is an Easily Modifiable Factor to Help Improve Disease Outcomes – Check Your Level Today

Having and maintaining healthy vitamin D levels and other nutrient levels can help improve your health now and for your future. Choose which to measure, such as your vitamin D, omega-3s, and essential minerals including magnesium and zinc, by creating your custom home test kit today. Take steps to improve the status of each of these measurements to benefit your overall health. You can also track your own intakes, symptoms and results to see what works best for YOU.

Enroll and test your levels today, learn what steps to take to improve your status of vitamin D (see below) and other nutrients and blood markers, and take action! By enrolling in the GrassrootsHealth projects, you are not only contributing valuable information to everyone, you are also gaining knowledge about how you could improve your own health through measuring and tracking your nutrient status, and educating yourself on how to improve it.

What Does it Take YOU to Get Your D to 40 ng/ml (100 nmol/L)?

Did you know your health could be greatly affected by making sure you have a vitamin D level of at least 40 ng/ml (100 nmol/L)? Help us help you.

STEP 1 - Do you know what your vitamin D level is? If not, be sure to test today to find out.

STEP 2 – Determine your target level. Are you at your target level? Experts recommend a level of at least 40-60 ng/ml (100-150 nmol/L).

STEP 3 – Need to boost your level? Use the D*calculator to see how much vitamin D it may take to reach your target. Opt for the Loading Dose for a quicker boost.

STEP 4 – Optimize how your body absorbs and utilizes vitamin D with co-nutrients and these simple steps.

STEP 5 – Re-Test! This is an important step to make sure you have reached your target level, and to ensure you are not taking too much! Re-testing after 3-4 months is recommended.

STEP 6 – Adjust, Repeat…

Give your immune system the nutrients it needs to support a healthy you and protect yourself from unnecessary diseases, especially COVID-19.


The first Randomized Controlled Trial on vitamin D and COVID-19 has shown a 96% lower risk of ICU admission for those receiving vitamin D (as 25(OH)D to quickly boost vitamin D blood levels) along with the standard treatment, compared to those receiving standard treatment alone.

These results support many previous observational studies showing a relationship between vitamin D levels and intake and COVID-19 severity.

Review the Latest Nutrient Research for COVID-19

GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute has launched the new Immune Boost project with the use of our myData-myAnswers nutrient health system that nearly 15,000 people are already using for their health. Specific markers that influence immune health are suggested for testing as part of this project including:

  • Vitamin D
  • Omega-3 Index
  • Essential elements magnesium, selenium, and zinc
  • hsCRP

Our goal is to demonstrate how one can use the Nutrient Research Model established by Dr. Robert Heaney to show the effect of vitamin D serum levels of at least 40 ng/ml (100 nmol/L) on risk reduction for all ethnicities in the population. Status and intake of other nutrients will also be analyzed for any type of relationship to immune status and symptom severity. Join the project today!

Please let us know if you're interested in helping sponsor this project.

CLICK HERE for updates and new information about the project.

Through GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute, you can also test your essential elements magnesium, copper, zinc and selenium, toxins such as lead, mercury and cadmium, as well as your omega-3 levels, inflammation levels and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Find out your levels today! Log on to the test selection page (click the link below) to get your tests and see for yourself if your levels can be improved.

Make sure you track your results before and after, about every 6 months!

Click Here to Access the Test Page

How can I track my nutrient intake and levels over time?

To help you track your supplement use and nutrient levels, GrassrootsHealth has created the Personal Health Nutrient Decision System called

For each specific supplement, you can track what days you take it, how much, and many other details.  This will help you know your true supplemental intake and what patterns of use work for you to reach and maintain optimum nutrient levels. Check it out today!